Locked Up: ‘Patients’ and their Gaolers. For the centenary of Thomas Szasz (15 April 2020)


Locked Up: ‘Patients’ and their Gaolers

For the centenary of the birth of 
Thomas Szasz
15 April 1920  8 September 2012

Copyright © Anthony Stadlen 2020

This is a list of some remarkable people who have been imprisoned in ‘asylums’ and ‘psychiatric’ institutions on the grounds of what used to be called their ‘lunacy’ and nowadays is called their ‘mental health issues’. They used to be called ‘lunatics’ and now are called ‘patients’ or service users’ – and, when they are locked up, ‘secure service users’. They are said to be ‘experiencing psychosis’; this masks the fact that ‘psychosis’ is attributed to them as the justification for locking them up. This does not mean that none of them had actually committed crimes for which, after a fair trial, they might legitimately have, for example, been given a prison sentence, of determinate length.

Some of these locked-up ‘patients’ have been the subjects of Inner Circle Seminars conducted by them in person (Vladimir Bukovsky, Kate Millett, Deirdre McCloskey) or by researchers or biographers who have made a deep study of them. In this list, such seminars are indicated by a link.

Further suggestions for this list will be welcome.


2. Christopher Smart
11 April 1722 – 21 May 1771

3. Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin
20 March 1770 – 7 June 1843


5. Count István Széchenyi
21 September 1791 – 8 April 1860

6. John Clare
13 July 1793 – 20 May 1864

7. Nikolaus Lenau
25 August 1802 – 22 August 1850

8. Rosina Bulwer Lytton
Wife of Edward Bulwer Lytton
née Rosina Doyle Wheeler
4 November 1802 – 12 March 1882

9. John Thomas Perceval
14 February 1803 – 28 February 1876

10. Gérard de Nerval
22 May 1808 – 26 January 1855

11. David Ochterlony Dyce Sombre
18 December 1808 – 1 July 1851


13. Richard Dadd
1 August 1817 – 7 January 1886

14. Ignác Semmelweis
1 July 1818– 13 August 13 1865

15. Mary Ann (née Todd) Lincoln
Wife of President Abraham Lincoln
13 December 1818 – 16 July 1882

16. Charles Deas
22 December 1818 – 23 March 1867

17. Adèle Hugo
Daughter of Victor Hugo
24 August 1830 – 21 April 1915

18. Empress Carlota of Mexico
7 June 1840 – 19 January l927

19. Judge Daniel Paul Schreber
25 July 1842 – 14 April 1911
20. Friedrich Nietzsche
15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900

21. Georg Cantor
3 March [O.S. 19 February] 1845 – 6 January 1918

22. Jose Karl Rädler
1847 – 1917

23. Edward Paris Nesbit
1852 – 1927

24. Hans Rott
1 August 1858 – 25 June 1884

25. Rachel Beer née Sassoon
1858 – 29 April 1927

26. Hugo Wolf
13 March 1860 – 22 February 1903

27. Linda Sibelius
Sister of Jean Sibelius
27 November 1863 – 15 May 1932

28. Séraphine (de Senlis) Louis
3 September 1864 – 11 December 1942

29. Camille Claudel
8 December 1864 – 19 October 1943

30. Aby Warburg 
13 June 1866 – 26 October 1929

31. Otto Gross
17 March 1877 – 13 February 1920

32. Ida Irene Dalser
First wife of Benito Mussolini?
20 August 1880 – 11 December 1937

33. Gladys, Duchess of Marlborough
7 Feb 1882 – 1977

34. Anna Wickham
1884 –1947

35. Alice, Princess Andrew
Mother-in-law of The Queen
25 February 1885 – 5 December 1969

36. Ezra Pound
30 October 1885 – 1 November 1972


38. Vaclav Nijinsky
12 March 1890 – 8 April 1950

39. Ivor Gurney
28 August 1890 – 26 December 1937

40. James Forrestal
15 February 1892 – 22 May 1949

41. Martín Ramírez
1895 –1963

42. Antonin Artaud
4 September 1896 – 4 March 1948

43. Emily Holmes Coleman
22 January 1899 – 13 June 1974

44. Antonia White
1 March 1899 – 10 April 1980

45. Ernest Hemingway
21 July 1899 – 2 July 1961

46. Zelda Fitzgerald
Wife of Scott Fitzgerald
24 July 1900 – March 10 1948

47. Carl Liebman
ca. 1900 – 1969

48. Anna Kavan
born Helen Emily Woods
10 April 1901 – 5 December 1968

49. Kurt Gödel
28 April 1906 – 14 January 1978 

50. Claire Delbos
First Wife of Olivier Messiaen
2 November 1906 – 22 April 1959

51. Lucia Joyce
Daughter of James Joyce
26 July 1907 – 12 December 1982

52. Rose Williams
Sister of Tennessee Williams
1909 – 12 September 1996

53. Frances Farmer
19 September 1913 – 1 August 1970

54. Vivien Leigh
5 November 1913 – 7 July 1967

55. Philip Graham
18 July 1915 – 3 August 1963

56. Robert Lowell
1 March 1917 – 12 September 1977

57. Leonora Carrington
6 April 1917 – 25 May 2011

58. Rosemary Kennedy
Sister of President Kennedy
13 September 1918 – 7 January 2005


60. Louis Althusser
16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990

61. Ernst Herbeck
9 October 1920 – 11 September 1991

62. John Conrad Russell (4th Earl Russell)
16 November 1921 – 16 December 1987

63. Charles Mingus
22 April 1922 – 5 January 1979

64. Josef Hassid
28 December 1923 – 7 November 1950

65. Janet Frame
28 August 1924 – 29 January 2004

66. Bud Powell
27 September 1924 – 31 July 1966

67. Marilyn Monroe
1 June 1926 – 5 August 1962

68. Anne Sexton
9 November 1928 – 4 October 1974

69. Sylvia Plath
27 October 1932 – 11 February 1963

70. Kate Millett
14 September 1934 – 6 September 2017

71. Natalya Gorbanevskaya
26 May 1936 – 29 November 2013

72. Lady Lucan
born Veronica Duncan
1937 – 2017

73. Deirdre McCloskey
11 September 1942 –

75. Wang Wanxing
10 October 1949 –

76. James Rhodes
6 March 1975 –

No comments: